The optimal level of operating temperature for #lithiumbatteries is 0 to 35℃. The low-temperature environment will reduce the activity of lithium ions, the lipo battery discharge capacity will be weak, and the use time will be shortened. If the lithium battery using in a low-temperature environment for a short period of time, the damage is only temporary and does not damage the battery capacity. The performance will recover when reinforcing the temperature.
However, if the battery is charged and discharged in a low-temperature environment for a long time, metal lithium will be separated out on the surface of the “battery anode”. This process is irreversible and permanently damage to the battery capacity. Like sometimes, at low temperatures, our smartphone will automatically shut down. It is for the purpose of protecting the battery, on the other side, it is also caused by the unqualified and aging of the self-battery.
Good post. I have been thinking about this as well after reading a recent article (see below). Where is the best place to install LFP battery packs at a residence? Do you have a dry basement? Just because LFP can handle more extreme temps, many like myself want to plan for more ideal conditions for long term use. Batteries don’t provide economic return like a solar array with their cost and expected lifespan. Having them perform up to rated capacity/power daily (predictable) and having them last as long as they possibly can is very important for many (once they understand all this).
If you want an LFP battery to last and be most efficient, the “narrowing” temp range for longer term use is very important. Since heat can also degrade the life of an LFP battery, basements (dry ones) can work very well when available due to their temperature stability. Safer than in a garage due to potential collisions, basements don’t have anywhere near the hot and cold extremes as do most garages or carports. Also, in some climates, many new construction homes are placing the electric panel in the basement (often with insulated walls), which makes it a no-brainer. For a regular use charge/discharge solar + battery storage solution, the operating temp should stay right in that “sweet spot” for all the usage these batteries will undergo. They will be performing close to vendor lab test conditions, so you can plan more closely on what to expect.
For more extreme conditions, paying for heating or cooling of a battery has diminishing returns, something I want to avoid! LFP should not need active cooling. Or trying to insulate a battery for Winter and then removal in Spring/Summer is also not ideal when temps can swing drastically during Spring and Fall. Nobody wants this. If you have a dry basement that can meet local code for the installation, and is close enough to your planned array, a basement it a great choice for LFP batteries. Many don’t have a choice where they can place things, but if you are planning for a new construction home with solar and battery, think about where your electric panel, inverter (if string) OR combiner box (for micro-inverters), AND battery storage system will best be suited for the long term.
(this is not my website, just using for reference)
From the article:
Optimal Temperature of Lifepo4 in Different Scenarios
For short-term, range of -20 to +60°C (4 to 140°F)
Keep more than a month, reduce the range as follows:
Up to three months (-10 to +35°C/14–95°F)
More than three (+15–35°C / 59–95 °F)