[Part 5] Comprehensive insights into solid-state battery development

No Anode SSB

Another approach that went into production this year uses an “anodeless” structure and a proprietary solid-state ceramic separator to replace the polymer separators used in traditional lithium-ion batteries. By replacing the separator, the carbon or silicon anode used in traditional lithium-ion batteries can be replaced by a high-energy-density lithium metal anode. In a “cathode-less” structure, the battery is manufactured in a discharged state and the anode is formed in situ during the first charge. Not only does this simplify the manufacturing process and reduce costs, it also makes shipping safer because there is no pre-existing charge in the battery. Separator materials must have high conductivity, stability with lithium metal, resistance to lithium dendrite formation, and low interfacial resistance. Ceramics themselves are non-flammable, making them safer than traditional polymer diaphragms, which are hydrocarbons and may ignite. The construction of ceramic separators is largely proprietary, but avoiding the use of rare earth elements and favoring a continuous-flow manufacturing process helps reduce manufacturing costs. The technology aims to deliver an energy density of 1,000 watt-hours per liter and a specific energy of 400 watt-hours per kilogram, which would increase the vehicle’s range by 50%-90% while delivering higher power in a smaller battery pack. energy.

Sulfide electrolyte

Using a sulfide solid electrolyte in combination with a silicon anode and a traditional NMC cathode means only one element needs to be changed in existing battery manufacturing. The 100Ah large-capacity bagged battery produced in this way is planned to be put into production in 2024, with the goal of mass production of 800,000 batteries per year in 2028. Early versions of these batteries, which have a capacity of 2Ah, have passed standard nail penetration safety tests and are capable of withstanding external short circuits when charged at 100% or overcharged to 200% capacity, both of which will Causes traditional lithium-ion batteries to fail. The specific energy of this battery is 390 Wh/kg, and the energy density of the silicon anode is 930 Wh/L. By 2024, the specific energy density of the lithium metal anode will increase to 440 Wh/kg. The third generation battery aims to increase the specific energy to 560Wh/kg, achieve higher power performance in a larger battery of 785Wh/L, use a new cathode material that does not use nickel or cobalt, and will cost less than 1000Wh/kWh. At $3, it’s about 90% less expensive than the cathodes commonly used in current long-range car battery packs. Another solid electrolyte material already in production is factor electrolyte system technology. The technology has been used in a 40Ah prototype battery that can operate at room temperature and replace the liquid electrolyte in lithium-ion pouch batteries, increasing battery life by 20-50%.